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Exploring American History along the National Road

Contributed by Sheena Baker of Somerset County Chamber of Commerce

Earlier this year, we decided to explore the birth of a nation by traveling along the National Road through the Laurel Highlands of southwestern Pennsylvania.

The National Road—modern day U.S. Route 40—was the first federally funded highway in the U.S. and set a precedent for a national highway system and future public works projects. Beginning in Cumberland, Maryland, the route passes through the Cumberland Narrows (which was once one of only a few navigable routes across the Appalachian Mountain Range) before continuing northwest into Pennsylvania, across the Allegheny Mountains, and into the Ohio River Valley. The route’s earliest forms were buffalo trails and Native American footpaths. In the mid-1700s, Maryland frontiersman Thomas Cresap and Delaware Chief Nemacolin led an expedition to widen the trail for freight and trade into the Ohio Territory. From 1754–1755, Lieutenant Colonel George Washington and Major General Edward Braddock widened Nemacolin’s Trail farther during their failed campaigns to drive the French from Fort Duquesne in what is now Pittsburgh.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

In 1806, the Jefferson Administration approved plans to build a multi-state national highway from Cumberland westward to open settlement into the Ohio River Valley and the Midwest. Following the route set forth by Nemacolin, Washington, and Braddock, construction on the National Road began in 1811 and reached Wheeling, West Virginia (then Virginia) in 1818. From there, the highway continued across Ohio, Indiana, and nearly all of Illinois before funding for the project ran dry in the 1830s.

From the late 1810s to the 1850s, the more-than 600-mile National Road served as a gateway to the west as the main route from the east coast to the U.S. interior. Today, 90 miles of the highway—sometimes referred to as the National Pike or the Cumberland Road—pass through southwestern Pennsylvania, including more than 40 miles in Somerset and Fayette counties in the Laurel Highlands, which was the focus of our exploration on this particular weekend.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

Traveling from east to west as settlers would have in the 19th century, our first stop was at the Petersburg Toll House along Old Route 40 in Addison, Somerset County. When the National Road became too expensive to maintain in the 1830s, the federal government turned maintenance over to each individual state. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia turned the highway into a toll road and constructed tollhouses every 15 miles to collect money to pay for the upkeep of the heavily traveled route.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

Constructed in 1835, the Petersburg Toll House was known as Gate Number One, the first tollhouse in Pennsylvania across the Mason-Dixon Line. Now one of only three remaining tollhouses along U.S. 40, the structure serves as a museum that is open by appointment and is owned by the Great Crossings Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution.

After leaving Addison, we continued westward, crossing the Youghiogheny River Lake and passing centuries-old inns, houses, and other structures on our way to our next destination: Fort Necessity National Battlefield.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

Inside the site’s impressive Interpretive and Education Center, we learned how precursors to the French and Indian War and the worldwide Seven Years War were fought in the Laurel Highlands. In the spring of 1754, a young 22-year-old Washington led a failed attempt to push the French from Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River in what is now Pittsburgh. Following a controversial skirmish at nearby Jumonville Glen, Washington suffered defeat at his “Fort of Necessity” and was forced to retreat. He returned the following year under the command of the somewhat inexperienced Braddock in another attempt to force the French from Fort Duquesne. Again the British were defeated, suffering more than 900 casualties, including Braddock whose grave is marked by a large monument along the highway one mile west of Fort Necessity. (Incidentally, the British finally forced the French from Fort Duquesne in 1758 under the leadership of General Edward Forbes, whose march westward helped shape the Laurel Highlands’ other historic highway: U.S. Route 30, aka the Lincoln Highway.)

In addition to offering a reconstructed version of Fort Necessity, interactive displays, and five miles of walking trails, Fort Necessity National Battlefield also details the history of the National Road. During our visit, we traveled back through time and learned about the highway’s construction, its decline during the industrial railroading age, and its rebirth as an automobile “motor touring” highway in the 20th century. The Mount Washington Tavern, a former stagecoach stop overlooking the reconstructed fort, is part of the Fort Necessity National Battlefield and serves as a museum depicting life along the National Road during its heyday.

Having known very little about the French and Indian War or the National Road before my visit to Fort Necessity, I left quite impressed and eager for more information on how both affected the history of the U.S. I would recommend anyone with an interest in history to visit the National Park Service site.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

With a better understanding of what British troops and early settlers faced traversing southwestern Pennsylvania in the days before automobiles and other modern conveniences made travel so easy, we continued westward, keeping our eyes peeled for the white obelisk mile markers denoting the byway. Stone markers were initially placed at five-mile intervals on the south side of the National Road between Cumberland and Wheeling during the highway’s construction, but were later replaced by cast iron markers at one-mile intervals on the north side of the route in 1835.

At the top of Chestnut Ridge, we were treated to a stunning view of Uniontown and the surrounding countryside before descending into the valley below. Following Business Route 40, we navigated the streets of Uniontown, once a major center of business along the National Road.

Near the center of town, we stumbled upon the George C. Marshall Memorial Plaza, a tree-lined spot at the intersection of West Main and West Fayette Streets near Marshall’s boyhood home. Several statues and the Flags of Nations celebrate his life and narrative plaques tell Marshall’s story. The history and significance of the National Road, which passed through his hometown, was not lost on Marshall as a child and can be linked to his pursuit of a military career. Marshall rose to become a preeminent World War II General, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense, among his other notable achievements and positions. In 1953, he earned the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in developing the post-World War II European Recovery Program (better known as the Marshall Plan). According to History.com, Marshall is one of the most respected soldiers in U.S. history, second only to Washington, another famous George with ties to the region.

From Uniontown we continued our journey westward, stopping briefly to see the Searight Toll House. The structure is similar in design to the Petersburg Toll House and was also constructed in 1835. Searight Toll House is home to the “Off to Market” sculpture, one of five full-size, bronze outdoor sculptures constructed at specific locations for a National Road Sculpture Tour designed to augment visitors’ educational experiences in learning about the historic highway.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

A few miles from the Searight Toll House, we reached our final destination: historic Brownsville on the banks of the Monongahela River. Like Uniontown and other hamlets along the National Road, Brownsville was once a major industrial hub as well as a center for steamboat construction and river freight hauling, eclipsing nearby Pittsburgh in size until the mid-1800s.

From Brownsville, the National Road continues onward through Washington County, into West Virginia, and beyond. Though the National Road officially ends in Vandalia, Illinois, today U.S. 40 stretches 2,285.74 miles across 12 states from New Jersey to Utah.

Examining Somerset County’s Agricultural Heritage Through Architecture

Contributed by Sheena Baker of Somerset County Chamber of Commerce

If you’ve ever driven through Pennsylvania, you’ve no doubt noticed the Keystone State is home to a plethora of barns. Some are red, some are white; some are simple, one-level buildings while others are multi-storied structures. I’ve even seen purple barns and round barns in my travels.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Sheena Baker

To the untrained eye, one barn may seem like any other, but that’s not always the case, especially in Somerset County where these common everyday structures often showcase the region’s agricultural heritage. An estimated 2,000 barns in America’s County® today are Pennsylvania barns, an architecturally distinct type of barn that originated in Pennsylvania in the mid-1700s and became Somerset County’s most preferred barn construction design in the late 19th century.

A Pennsylvania barn consists of two levels—an upper level and a lower level—to allow space for animals, hay, and farming equipment. Pennsylvania barns also feature two distinct characteristics. The first is an unsupported forebay, which is a cantilevered overhang that extends over the lower level of the barn. The second feature is an embankment leading to the barn’s upper level, permitting easy access to that second story.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Somerset County Chamber of Commerce Photos

Pennsylvania barns aren’t the only unique agricultural architecture found in Somerset County. A number of structures feature elaborate handcrafted barn decorations, including barn stars, shutterwork, brackets, columns, and cupolas that are exclusive to Somerset, Bedford, and Washington Counties in southwestern Pennsylvania, with the largest number appearing in Somerset County. These decorations have links to the Pennsylvania Dutch who brought a deep love of the land and barn-building with them to the New World. They also provide insight into the lives of early Somerset County farmers and the deep pride and passion they felt for their work.

Barn stars began appearing on Somerset County structures during the late 1800s with the last known star appearing in 1917. Not to be confused with painted Pennsylvania Dutch hex signs commonly seen in eastern Pennsylvania, barn stars were handcrafted from wood and applied directly to a barn’s siding. Some stars served a dual purpose as ventilators for the structure. An estimated 75–100 barn stars still remain on Somerset County barns today.

Image: Sheena Baker

Image: Somerset County Chamber of Commerce Photos

You too can explore Somerset County’s rich agricultural heritage through the self-guided “Somerset County Pennsylvania Barn Stars and Decorations Driving Tour Map & Guide,” which is available from the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. The brochure highlights 19 of these numerous historic barns and barn decorations spread across Somerset County and includes details on their intricate, unique features and handcrafted decorations. All of the barns included on the brochure are also Pennsylvania barns.

The next time you find yourself in the countryside or on a back road near a farm, keep an eye out for these architecturally unique structures and works of art. You might just see more than a common everyday barn.

45th Annual Somerset Antique Show

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Image Credit: Sheena Baker

By Sheena Baker, Somerset County Chamber of Commerce

For decades, thousands of visitors have flocked to Somerset County, Pa. each August in search of unique collectibles and hidden treasures. This year proves to be no different. The 45th Annual Somerset Antique Show is on tap for Saturday, Aug. 8 on the streets of Uptown Somerset, and as always there is something for everyone.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

This popular event, open 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on the second Saturday of August, draws more than 100 antique vendors from three states displaying everything from furniture, sports memorabilia, jewelry and quilts to glassware, books, paintings, toys, coins and more. An estimated 5,000 people attend the street fair each year.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

In addition to the antiques on display, the event also includes an Antique & Classic Car Show from 1 to 3 p.m. in the Somerset Trust Co. parking lot along West Main Street, as well as various food and drink vendors set up throughout the fair.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

While perusing the antiques along the streets of historic Somerset, visitors also have the opportunity to stop in at local eateries, coffee houses and shops, each one unique and quirky in its own way.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Somerset and the surrounding region boast a number of antique stores that are also a draw for antique enthusiasts, and other area attractions – resorts, outdoor recreation opportunities, the Flight 93 National Memorial, Fallingwater and more – could easily entice visitors to spend an extended weekend in America’s County®.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Admission to the Somerset Antique Show is free to the public and free parking is available in the Somerset County parking garage on East Catherine Street. The event is held rain or shine.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

For more information on the 45th Annual Somerset Antique Show, contact the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce at (814) 445-6431 or visit www.somersetpa.net. Somerset is located in the Laurel Highlands of western Pennsylvania, one hour east of Pittsburgh at exit 110 of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Discover the American Spirit in America’s County®

By Sheena Baker, Somerset County Chamber of Commerce

Flight 93 flag VC showing the American Spirit

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

When it comes to celebrating our nation’s birthday, several destinations come to mind as prime locations to dive into all that is the Independence Day holiday: Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Boston, Gettysburg, national and state parks, and the list goes on.

But when it comes to understanding and honoring the American spirit, particularly in recent U.S. history, there’s no better place to visit than Somerset County, Pa., now known as America’s County® because of two significant events in the county’s – and the country’s – history.

On Sept. 11, 2001, a day that began like any other, Somerset County was forever changed when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed in an abandoned strip mine near Shanksville. Flight 93 was the fourth commercial airliner hijacked by terrorists in a strategic attack on the U.S. But unlike the planes that crashed into the World Trade Center towers in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Va., Flight 93 never reached its intended target, believed to be the U.S. Capitol, thanks to the heroic acts of the 40 passengers and crew aboard that flight.

93 cents

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Today, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to see the Flight 93 National Memorial each year to honor the actions of those who thwarted the terrorists’ plans. While the memorial officially opened in September 2011, this September will see the dedication and opening of the site’s visitor center and learning center, which will further detail the story of Flight 93 and its passengers for generations to come.

Just 10 months after the events of Sept. 11, 2001, another incident thrust rural Somerset County into the national and international spotlight. On the evening of July 24, 2002, nine miners from Quecreek Mining Inc. became trapped 240 feet below ground after breaching a wall separating their mine from an abandoned, flooded mine last worked in the 1950s. More than 50 million gallons of 55-degree water flooded the Quecreek mine, trapping the nine men in a 4-foot high chamber.

Quecreek CHAMBER PHOTO

Image Credit: Somerset County Chamber of Commerce

What followed was a four-day, around-the-clock emotional and harrowing rescue attempt riddled with setback after setback as federal, state and local officials rushed to save the miners while the world watched. In the early morning hours of July 28, after 77 hours of being trapped underground with poor air conditions and rising waters closing in, all nine miners were rescued safely, each one pulled the 240 feet to the surface in a 22-inch metal rescue capsule. The safe rescue was inspirational and a feel-good moment for a community and a country still healing from the tragedy of Sept. 11, 2001.

This month marks 13 years since the “9 for 9” rescue and since 2002, tens of thousands of people have visited the Quecreek Mine Rescue Site on the more than 200-year-old Dormel Farms® just outside of Somerset and a short 20-mile drive from the Flight 93 National Memorial. Visitors to the site can explore the education/visitors center, see artifacts from the rescue, examine interpretive exhibits and more. The Quecreek Mine Rescue Site also includes a 7-foot bronze coal miner statue, a tribute to all coal miners, past and present, as well as the Monument for Life park, a permanent memorial honoring rescue workers everywhere.

Flight 93 ranger talk

Image Credit: Sheena Baker

Both the Flight 93 crash and the Quecreek mine rescue thrust quiet, rural Somerset County into an international spotlight, forever changing the region and its people. In a short, 10-month span, area residents and businesses came together twice in a time of need to help in any way possible – as first responders, as donors of food and services, as a respectful, welcoming community – and now they’ve taken on the role of caretakers for two important sites in their own backyards.

Because of these events, the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office designated Somerset County as America’s County® in February 2005 and it’s a moniker of pride for Somerset County residents. This summer, I invite everyone to visit Somerset County to learn more about both the Flight 93 and Quecreek mine rescue stories and to discover all that is America’s County®. Additional information is also available by contacting the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce at (814) 445-6431.